History[ edit ] American and European patent applications relating to the production of plastic shopping bags can be found dating back to the early s, but these refer to composite constructions with handles fixed to the bag in a secondary manufacturing process. The modern lightweight shopping bag is the invention of Swedish engineer Sten Gustaf Thulin. Thulin’s design produced a simple, strong bag with a high load-carrying capacity, and was patented worldwide by Celloplast in Hasminin was a well-established producer of cellulose film and a pioneer in plastics processing. Amer Mansour was the CEO of this company. The company’s patent position gave it a virtual monopoly on plastic shopping bag production, and the company set up manufacturing plants across Europe and in the US. However, other companies saw the attraction of the bag, too, and the US petrochemicals group Mobil overturned Celloplast’s US patent in McBride, was one of the first companies to exploit this new opportunity to bring convenient products to all major shopping stores. The Dixie Bag Company, along with similar firms such as Houston Poly Bag and Capitol Poly, was instrumental in the manufacturing, marketing and perfecting of plastic bags in the s.

The 10 Dirtiest Spots in Your Kitchen

Biodegradable Plastic Bags Paper Lasts Longer in Landfills Paper takes up more room in landfills and doesn’t exactly disintegrate rapidly. Switching to biodegradable plastic bags might be something to consider, but a ban on plastic bags won’t do much for the landfills. If anything, assuming an increase in paper bag usage, it could make the problem worse. Plastic’s Carbon Footprint Is Better An interview with chemistry professor David Tyler posted on the University of Oregon’s website revealed that plastic bags actually produce less stress on the environment than paper or cotton bags.

XFN relationships meta data profile Authors. Tantek Çelik; Matthew Mullenweg; Eric Meyer; As described in HTML4 Meta data profiles.. rel. HTML4 definition of the ‘rel’ attribute. Here are some additional values, each of which can be used or omitted in any combination (unless otherwise noted, and except where prohibited by law) and their meanings, symmetry, transitivity and inverse if any.

Unearthing a Treasure Trove of Rudi Gernreich Fashions, The WHOLE Story I adore recounting this interminable tale about my Vintage Rudi Gernreich collection because there has been so much speculation and disinformation surrounding the unearthing of this incredible collection of treasures. Apparently my humor was somewhat infectious and they booked me there on the spot! I was flying off to Chicago a week later.

Now the truth is that no matter where I travel in the world, and for whatever reason, I always managed to find time to go Treasure Hunting. So true to form, while I was in Chicago and on my off time from shooting the Oprah show I used my first book, The Rag Street Journal, The Ultimate Guide to shopping Thrift Across North America, Henry Holt, New York, to guide me through the back streets of Chicago in my hopes of unearthing something fabulous, for this was un-chartered territory for me back then and you never know what you will find hidden away.

In my travels around Chicago I stumbled into a small but well tended vintage shop called Strange Cargo and spotted a couple of interesting garments, so I asked one of the clerks if they had any high-end vintage garments that may not be on the sales floor, always a good tip. I snatched them from her hands and proclaimed them mine as I slipped into the dressing room. Well this was rather alarming since these two pair of pants were perhaps the most expensive things in the entire store, so the sales clerk hovered over me as I fitted myself in the dressing room.

She returned with half a dozen very interesting pieces of Gernreich, which were clearly from the same collection, and again I said I would try them on, and again that concerned look crept across her face. At this point it seemed silly to keep going back to their stockroom to choose things they thought I might like, so I suggested I simply pop my head in and have a good look myself. Goodness I thought they would die at that request, however they finally relented and let me have a glance at an over head hanging rack that to my amazement was crammed packed full of dead stock Rudi Gernreichs!

I seriously thought they would have a heart attack when I proclaimed I would like to try them all on. Seriously, it was like these were their precious little newborns that I was about to snatch them from their playpens!

Discrimination based on skin color

As I mentioned, there are exceptions — there is a group of guys who prefer older women, and there is a group of women who is uniquely attractive despite being older. But denying that a significant age difference is an issue is like denying that a typical woman wants to be with a guy who is taller. Many younger men appreciate the wisdom, intelligence, reponsibility and maturity an older woman brings to the relationship.

Most younger men in this study, preferred to date years older than their own age. You underestimate how many younger men are tired of the games women their age play. Again, there are exceptions, but relying on it is a risky proposition, to say the least.

A messenger bag (also called a courier bag) is a type of sack, usually made out of some kind of cloth (natural or synthetic), that is worn over one shoulder with a strap that goes across the chest resting the bag on the lower back. While messenger bags are sometimes used by couriers, they are now also an urban fashion types of messenger bags are called carryalls.

The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. December History[ edit ] European colonialism created a system of racial hierarchy and race-based ideology , which had led to a structure of domination that privileged whites over blacks.

Biological differences in skin color were used as a justification for the enslavement and oppression of Africans, developing a social hierarchy that placed whites at the top and blacks at the bottom, with the exception of ” white trash “, who were considered lower than blacks. Slaves with lighter complexion were allowed to engage in less strenuous tasks, like domestic duties, while the darker slaves participated in hard labor, which was more than likely outdoors.

One of the first forms of colorism was the white slave owners deciding that only the light skinned slaves would work in the house while the darker ones were subjected to the harsh conditions of the fields. One of these tests was the brown paper bag test. The skin tests were not just used by white people trying to differentiate between black people, but also by the black people themselves.

In addition to the bag test, the comb test and the door test were also used [56]. The comb test was used to measure the kinkiness of the persons hair. The objective was for the comb to be able to pass through the hair without stopping.

Advantages of Plastic Grocery Bags

Begin Slideshow Photographed by Rachel Cabitt. I used to look at dating in New York as a pure numbers game. I figured that the more men I met up with for drinks, the sooner I’d find myself in a relationship.

Then I received an email from the Diplomat. I call him the Diplomat because he’s a reader who wants to stay anonymous and he’s a retired diplomat.

By Sandra Ketcham A woman carries a plastic grocery bag. It is easy to overlook the advantages of plastic grocery bags due to the perception that they are environmentally unfriendly. While they certainly have ecological drawbacks, plastic grocery bags can be beneficial to retailers, consumers, and even the environment. Advantages of Plastic Grocery Bags for Retailers Retailers for have favored plastic shopping bags as long as they have been available-about 50 years.

The main advantages of plastic grocery bags are that they are cost-effective, easy to use, and convenient to store. Plastic bags are available in bulk purchases at a fraction of a cent per piece. In contrast, paper bags typically cost 5 cents or more per piece. Reusable cloth bags, which are gaining in popularity as environmental sustainability becomes a more widespread concern, can cost as much as a few dollars each.

In large volume, plastic bags have obvious overhead cost benefits for stores and their profit margins. In addition, plastic bags are quicker to open, pack, and double up than paper bags. While those few seconds may seem nominal, for busy cashiers, this can help keep lines moving efficiently. Plastic bags also require less space than paper bags, both in storage and at cashier stations, and weigh about one-tenth as much.

Ban on plastic bags spreads to Tasmania

History[ edit ] American and European patent applications relating to the production of plastic shopping bags can be found dating back to the early s, but these refer to composite constructions with handles fixed to the bag in a secondary manufacturing process. The modern lightweight shopping bag is the invention of Swedish engineer Sten Gustaf Thulin.

Thulin’s design produced a simple, strong bag with a high load-carrying capacity, and was patented worldwide by Celloplast in Celloplast was a well-established producer of cellulose film and a pioneer in plastics processing. The company’s patent position gave it a virtual monopoly on plastic shopping bag production, and the company set up manufacturing plants across Europe and in the US. However, other companies saw the attraction of the bag, too, and the US petrochemicals group Mobil overturned Celloplast’s US patent in

Very seriously, this is simply speed dating, while you wear a paper bag over your head, with 59 other singles at the New York Hall of Science.

These easy to use countdown party bags will help you stay organized until the festivities begin!! The countdown starts… NOW! We love the bright colors and the fun graphics that really make these printables pop!! Party Bag Countdown Template and bag designs for 14 different times from 5: You choose the activities you think your guests will enjoy the MOST.

Interactive Dinner Place Mat to accompany your dinner plans. Midnight Snack Tags Activity for a fun, interactive and meaningful snack! New Year Party Bag Tags to make your own party bags for the night including sparkler holders! This kit has everything!!! Some printers work better than others for printing on paper bags, if your printer struggles, these are easy to simply print, cut and attach to paper bags! Before you forget, save this fun idea to your Pinterest board!

Choose which activities you want to use and place each one in a different party bag.

The Hunt: Professional Tote Bags

History[ edit ] This design of bag has been used in the transportation of mail and goods by numerous types of messengers , including Pony Express riders, postal workers, messengers on foot especially in ancient times , and bicycle couriers. Some Royal Mail carriers in the United Kingdom currently use large messenger bags to deliver mail in lieu of a Postbag. Pre-dating today’s messenger bags described herein as specifically for bicycle messengers , fashion brands had been creating “messenger style” bags modeled after military map case bags and document pouches featuring a shoulder strap intended for wear across the chest for over a century.

American Fine Paper Company Located in Appleton, Wisconsin, AFP specializes in the purchase and sale of bond, offset, kraft and newsprint in rolls and skids of sheets.

Solid lines show historical data from to ; dashed lines show projections of historical trends to Any material flow analysis of this kind requires multiple assumptions or simplifications, which are listed in Materials and Methods, and is subject to considerable uncertainty; as such, all cumulative results are rounded to the nearest Mt.

The largest sources of uncertainty are the lifetime distributions of the product categories and the plastic incineration and recycling rates outside of Europe and the United States. The growth of plastics production in the past 65 years has substantially outpaced any other manufactured material. The same properties that make plastics so versatile in innumerable applications—durability and resistance to degradation—make these materials difficult or impossible for nature to assimilate.

Thus, without a well-designed and tailor-made management strategy for end-of-life plastics, humans are conducting a singular uncontrolled experiment on a global scale, in which billions of metric tons of material will accumulate across all major terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems on the planet. The relative advantages and disadvantages of dematerialization, substitution, reuse, material recycling, waste-to-energy, and conversion technologies must be carefully considered to design the best solutions to the environmental challenges posed by the enormous and sustained global growth in plastics production and use.

Global breakdowns of total production by polymer type and industrial use sector were derived from annual market and polymer data for North America, Europe, China, and India table S2 12 , 13 , 19 — Polymer type and industrial use sector breakdowns of polymer production are similar across countries and regions. Global additives production data, which are not publicly available, were acquired from market research companies and cross-checked for consistency table S3 17 , Additives data are available for to

Paper Popcorn Bags

Made from used truck tarpaulins, bicycle inner tubes and car seatbelts, Freitag bags are entirely upcycled and manufactured in a vertically integrated, local Zurich factory, giving new, purposeful life to materials that would otherwise end up in landfills. The result is a collection of functional, water repellent and durable bags and accessories that answered the needs of founders and brothers Markus and Daniel Freitag. Since , the Freitag brothers have been offering up their creative solution to reducing waste by creating colorful and functional collections of unisex bags ideal for people on the go.

As the world leader in truck tarp recycling, Freitag takes on mile long tarps and turn them into 40 different bag designs in the form of messenger bags, totes, backpacks, travel bags, wallets and more.

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This is accomplished by dissolving lignin in a cooking liquor, so that it may be washed from the cellulose ; this preserves the length of the cellulose fibres. Paper made from chemical pulps are also known as wood-free papers —not to be confused with tree-free paper ; this is because they do not contain lignin, which deteriorates over time. The microscopic structure of paper: Micrograph of paper autofluorescing under ultraviolet illumination.

There are three main chemical pulping processes: The kraft process , invented in the s and first used in the s, is now the most commonly practiced strategy, one of its advantages is the chemical reaction with lignin, that produces heat, which can be used to run a generator. Most pulping operations using the kraft process are net contributors to the electricity grid or use the electricity to run an adjacent paper mill.

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Plastic bags have a bad reputation, but banning them could have some surprising negative effects. A ban could lead to less convenience in day-to-day life and even have economical repercussions without making a truly significant improvement to the environment. Plastic Bag Alternatives Aren’t Necessarily Better The common belief is that just about anything is better than the typical thin plastic bag you get from the supermarket, but it’s not so simple.

There are surprising environmental issues to consider as well as situations where plastic just works better than paper or cotton and is being reused in the process like lining a bathroom trashcan or cleaning up after your dog on a walk. Paper Lasts Longer in Landfills Paper takes up more room in landfills and doesn’t exactly disintegrate rapidly, either.

Plastic shopping bags, carrier bags, or plastic grocery bags are a type of plastic bag used as shopping bags and made from various kinds of plastic. In use by consumers worldwide since the s, [1] these bags are sometimes called single-use bags, referring to carrying items from a store to a home.

The 10 Dirtiest Spots in Your Kitchen You may be surprised to find out where the most germs are lurking. Use this cleaning checklist to kill all the germs in your cooking zone. Advertisement – Continue Reading Below 1 Your Kitchen Sink Thinkstock “There can be millions of pathogens disease-causing germs clinging to the sink, the seal of the drain and the rubber gasket around the garbage disposal,” says Dr.

While proper cooking lowers your chance of foodborne illness, germs like salmonella, which lives in much of the chicken you bring home, can linger in your sink after you wash the food that contains it. Touch your face after touching the sink and you’ve just spread the germs. Clean your sink immediately after rinsing raw meat, veggies and pet bowls and once a day even when you don’t wash food or pet dishes. Spray a disinfectant look for the EPA registration number in tiny print on the label , which kills most bacteria and viruses, on the faucet, sink sides, sink bottom and sink strainers.

Leave the product on the surface for the contact time recommended on the label,” says Dr. A dirty rag contaminates any surface it touches, so if you eat off one of those surfaces, you can fall ill. Launder in hot water and dry on hot, which kills more germs.

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The Tragedy of the Commons Science 13, December At the end of a thoughtful article on the future of nuclear war, J. It is our considered professional judgment that this dilemma has no technical solution. If the great powers continue to look for solutions in the area of science and technology only, the result will be to worsen the situation.

An implicit and almost universal assumption of discussions published in professional and semipopular scientific journals is that the problem under discussion has a technical solution.

There are blind dates, and then there are paper bag test the theory that it’s possible to form a love connection with someone without seeing his or her face, a U.K.-based dating app held.

Pizza boxes, crisp bags and light bulbs: Takeaway pizza boxes, crisp packets and metallic wrapping paper are among the items you should not put in your recycling bins, says Harsha Rathnayake of rubbish removers www. He has now compiled a list of the things Brits are most likely to mistake for being recyclable. Putting the wrong things in the recycling bin can cause cross contamination, causing the entire lot to be rejected and sent to landfill.

Glass and paper are particularly troublesome, as they are often assumed to be recyclable in all their forms. In fact, there are several types of glass and paper products that either cannot be recycled, or must not be put into a household wheelie bin. Many people are not aware that pizza boxes cannot be recycled if they are stained with grease. Crisp packets are also a bugbear for would-be recyclers, as they are often mistaken for foil but are in fact a metallised plastic that is not recyclable.

Metallic or glittery wrapping paper should not be recycled either, as it contains non-paper additives. To see whether a substance really is foil or paper, scrunch it in your hand — if it stays squashed then it is recyclable and if it springs back it is not.

MIX: Paper Bag Speed Dating